Discussion Papers

No. 73, 2017 – Differences of economic development and ways of cooperation in the Slovak-Hungarian cross border region
The article gives an overview of economic processes in the Slovak-Hungarian border region. The main conclusions are based on the principal findings of a Slovak-Hungarian cross border migration project funded by the Hungary-Slovakia Cross Border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013.
No. 72, 2016 – Organisational Capital and Hospital Performance in Hungary
The paper presents a case study exploring the possibilities to measure own-account organisational capital and its impact on hospital performance in Hungary.
No. 71, 2016 – Structural changes in public expenditures in the European Union since 2008 – with special regard to New Member States
The paper analyses the reasons for growing size and the change in the structure of public expenditures in the European Union since 2007, with special regard to the New Member States (NMS).
No. 70, 2016 – The fight againts unemployement: The case of Hungary
The paper, prepared with the support of the International Visegrad Fund, discusses labor market developments and related policies in Hungary since the early 1990s.
No. 69, 2005 – Thoughts on Hungarian Industrial Policy–adaptation and pathfinding
The Hungarian industrial policy of the future should be a competition and development oriented policy encompassing not only the industry itself, but also numerous segments of the economy.
No. 68, 2005 – Business services in Hungary
For, a couple of decades ago, services were still considered a factor that slowed the rate of economic growth. In other words, this sector was deemed to have a low productivity which could be increased only at a slow pace; it was considered a sector whose mechanization, standardization – all that increases productivity in the manufacturing industry – could only be realized to a limited extent. Service theories held that the continuous growth in the weight of services in the economy was a consequence of economic development – instead of seeing it as one of the causes, i.e., an important element of economic growth.
No. 67, 2004 – Russian Economic Growth and Development: Some New and Old Dilemmas
The paper aims to contribute to the discussion, both in Russia and internationally, about Russian strategies of economic development.
No. 66, 2004 – Is There Any Convergence in Trade Structures Following EU Accession? Some Trade Related Aspects of Enlargement
The aim of this paper is to reveal some trade related aspects of recent enlargement of the EU with a reference to experience of the former acceding countries from Ireland to Finland.
No. 65, 2004 – Productivity Gap and Restructuring: Mapping the Technology Structure of Branch Plants and Technology Integration of CEECs
The project analyses determinants of productivity gaps between the average productivity levels of the EU-15 and a selection of most advanced Central East European Economies (such as Czech and Slovak Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia).
No. 64, 2004 – Perspectives for Economic Cooperation Between Russia and the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe in the Light of the Enlargement of the European Union
This paper argues that Eastern enlargement of the European Union, which is to be accomplished de jure as of May 1, 2004, will not bring about any further significant changes in trade and economic cooperation between Russia and the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).
No. 63, 2001 – Dual economy, the role of the MNC-s in Hungary and the EU-accession
The paper – by summarising our research results proceeded in 2000-2001 – gives some answers to the question whether the fast increasing presence of multinational companies (MNC-s) did and would increase the gap between development prospects of indigenous and foreign owned firms in Hungary, or not? Whether the negative effects of a dual type of economic development could be revised (at least moderated) by the economic policy or not?
No. 62, 2000 – Role of Regional Integration Initiatives in Trade Liberalisation of Transition Economies
The paper examines the Europe Agreements and the CEFTA and considers their impact on trade flows and trade policy of transition economies. It analyses in more detail the Hungarian experience, including the development of direct investment inflows from Hungary to neighbouring countries.
No. 61, 2000 – Some Aspects of Medium-term Development in Central and Eastern Europe
This paper intends to outline some of the factors (both international and domestic) that could influence the economic development of the Central and Eastern European countries in the 3-4 years coming after 2000.
No. 60, 2000 – Alternative Scenarios for Hungary’s Accession and Macroeconomic Development
As ten transition countries prepare for membership in the European Union (EU), it is evident that incumbent members, particularly the most affected border states, are concerned with the likely impacts of the accession process on themselves. The aim of the paper is to investigate likely macroeconomic developments in Hungary through 2010, based on two distinct scenarios: one that assumes accession for Hungary to the EU in 2005, and another that assumes that the country will not accede to the EU before 2010 (the status quo scenario).
No. 59, 1999 – Regional Effects of FDI-Inflows in Hungary
This study summarising the research results proceeded in 1998 aims to measure the real and changing effects of the FDI-inflows by Hungarian regions, and to identify the main explaining factors of differences in the FDI-attractiveness.
No. 58, 1999 – Interpreting and Measuring Seigniorage: Hungary’s Case
The paper addresses some issues related to the interpretation of seigniorage and present calculations on the empirical importance of its different interpretations. While doing so, it refers to certain macroeconomic developments in Hungary and rely on the relevant Hungarian data, but the implications of the analysis goes beyond Hungarian macroeconomic and policy experiences, as they are likely to be relevant not just for Central-East European (CEE) economies, but also for other countries experiencing capital inflows and sterilised intervention at a time of relatively high domestic inflation.
No. 57, 1998 – Transformation as a Subject of Economic Theory
The basic thesis of the paper is that economics, when interpreted in sufficiently broad terms, can meaningfully contribute to interpreting facts and figures, provide an analytical frame for arranging them and even suggest some lines of action for policymaking. Meanwhile, doing so economics – like any other discipline – can not aspire for exclusiveness. The subject of analysis is a multidimensional, and in many respects open-ended, socio-economic process where several approaches are justified. It adopts a consciously one-sided, narrow economic approach and try to figure out what this area of research has to contribute to understanding systemic change, and vice versa, what new impetus can be derived from the experience of this area for general economics.
No. 56, 1998 – Labour Migration and the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union – Lessons from the Hungarian Experiences
The paper presents evidence concerning migratory flows to and from Hungary during the 1990s. It will prove that there is no serious evidence for the economic danger of migration following the enlargement of the European Union In fact, there is no reason to expect considerable emigration from Hungary. Migration from other Central and Eastern European countries to Hungary is somewhat more contradictory to forecast. It attempts to give answer concerning these tendencies, as well.
No. 55, 1998 – Currency Crisis in the Czech Republic in May 1997
The paper analyzes how the change in performance and perception occurred in the initially promising Czech transition, and what was the role of the currency crisis in it.
No. 54, 1998 – Summary Report of a KOPINT-DATORG Project: Maturity and Tasks of Hungarian Industry in the Context of Accession to the EU
The objective of the project launched by IKIM, in spring 1997 was to gather together a think tank of experts of industrial companies, professional associations and interest representation organisations, economics researchers and prominent representatives of the professions concerned in 16 industrial-branch-specific sections to audit their respective professional areas, through collective thinking/brainstorming and debates, from the point of view of the requirements and tasks of, and recommended preparatory industrial policy for, EU accession.
No. 51-53, 1998 – Short-term Prospects for the International Economy
The study analyses the short-term prospects of the global economy, with a particular emphasize on the impact of the Asian financial crisis.
No. 50, 1998 – The “New Pension Orthodoxy” and Beyond: Transforming Old Age Security in Central Europe
The paper reviews the former pension reform debate, referring to the Latin American privatization precedents as well as to the World Bank report “Averting the Old Age Crisis” and its critics. It also examines how far the “new pension orthodoxy” has succeeded in replicating its radical reform agenda in CE after the transition.
No. 49, 1997 – Capital Inflows to Hungary in 1995-1996, Composition, Effects and Policy Responses
A steady inflow of private foreign capital and an accompanying improvement on the current account – the two main features of Hungarian balance-of-payments developments since March 1995 – are the main topic of this paper.
No. 48, 1997 – Central Europe on the Way to EU Accession: A State of Art Report
The paper examines the changed narrative of public discussion about the eastward enlargement of the EU. It gives an outline about the post-transition landscape and analyzes the political and economical aspects of the accession of Central Europe.
No. 47, 1997 – Towards Sustainable Growth?
The paper targets the specific problem of economic transition, i.e. how the former socialist countries could recover from severe recession of the years after the political change.
No. 46, 1997 – Privatisation and Regulation: Restructuring and Conflicts in the Hungarian Electricity Supply Industry
The present analysis sets out to review first experiences and open questions about the privatisation of the electricity sector in Hungary after the transition.
No. 45, 1997 – An Eastern Enlargement of the EU: Burden or Blessing?
If a country is unable or unwilling to create the feasibility conditions for its joining in a club, whose rules – the acquis- were already well known and even accepted by it at the time of their application for full membership, it is probably just a waste of time to wait and prepare for another 15 years.
No. 44, 1997 – The Social Costs of Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe
The aim of the paper is to outline the social costs of transformation in the second sense of the term in an international comparative context. Social costs are here understood as the negative phenomena that accompany the systemic change. Factors which determine or express working and living conditions, health and social status are listed also in the study.
No. 43, 1996 – Enlargement of the EU: Dynamics and Problems
The paper analyses the aspects of the coming enlargement of the EU, by examining the association period to the accession, the EU’s and the candidate countries’ preparedness as well as the probable process of accession.
No. 42, 1996 – From Quotas to Hard Currency: Company Views on the Post-Soviet Barter Period at the Beginning of the 1990s
This paper aims to record certain general features of what can be called the post-Soviet or CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) barter period. It is based on a series of interviews conducted among a number of companies.
No. 41, 1996 – The Weight of Black Trade and Black Services in the National Economy
The main objective of this study is to estimate the weight of the black economy using propositions and volumes that can be interpreted at the level of the national economy, and that are characteristics of nonregistered goods and services.
No. 40, 1996 – Recent Evidence and Prospects for Growth in Central-Eastern Europe
The aim of this paper is to scrutinise recent macroeconomic developments in the so-called Visegrád states (i.e. the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and most recently Slovenia). The overview of economic developments of the past some years will be supplemented by short-term forecasts up to 1997.
No. 39, 1996 – Hungary’s Trade Policy and Trade Régime: from Neoprotectionism to Liberalism or Vica Versa?
The paper examines the trade policy of Hungary after the transition, discussing tariffs and similar measures as well as non-tariff measures in import policy. Furthermore, it also outlines export policies and new issues in trade policy.
No. 38, 1996 – Hungary’s Trade Policy Between the Uruguay Round and EU Accession
The paper discusses the Hungarian trade in goods in the light of the uruguay Round, with a special emphasize on market access for goods and the aspects of opening up the Hungarian market. It also examines the impact of other UR commitments on Hungary as well as the international dimension of domestic economic policies.
No. 37, 1995 – Steps for a Monetary Integration of the Economies in Central and Eastern Europe Into the IMS, ERM and EU – Structural Changes in Trade Relations Between the European Union and Central and Eastern Europe Since 1991
On the 9th and 10th of June, 1995 Kopint-Datorg and the Economic Research Institute of Halle (IWH) held a common seminar in Halle on the integration of the Eastern European transition countries to the European Union. This paper contains two of the studies prepared for this seminar.
No. 36, 1995 – Changing Trade Pattern in Hungary – Changing Patterns of Trade between Hungary and the European Community (Union) A Retrospective Analysis 1989-1994
On the 9th and 10th of June, 1995 Kopint-Datorg and the Economic Research Institute of Halle (IWH) held a common seminar in Halle on the integration of the Eastern European transition countries to the European Union. This paper contains two of the studies prepared for this seminar.
No. 35, 1995 – Thesen zur ungarischen Beitrittspolitik und zur Osterweiterung der Europäischen Union – Die Haltung der EU gegenüber Mittel- und Osteuropa nach dem Kopenhagener Gipfel und vor der Überprüfung des Maastricht-Vertrages – Notwendigkeit und Chancen einer Reform der GAP vor dem Hintergrund einer EU-Osterweiterung
On the 9th and 10th of June, 1995 Kopint-Datorg and the Economic Research Institute of Halle (IWH)  held a common seminar in Halle on the integration of the Eastern European transition countries to the European Union. This paper contains three of the studies prepared for this seminar in German.
No. 34, 1995 – The Political Economy of the Reform Strategy: China and Eastern Europe Compared
The paper is about the limitations and possibilities of comparing the reform strategies in China and in the CEE, drawing lessons with a rather schematic approach.
No. 33, 1995 – The Financial Sector in Central and Eastern Europe: Three Questions and Three Answers
This paper wants to arrive at a strategy for the development of the financial sector in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This paper presents the common characteristics and the possible differences of what in the author’s view should be transformed to specific policies for these countries.
No. 32, 1995 – Privatisation and Distribution in Central and Eastern Europe: Theory from Evidence
The paper examines the process of privatisation in the transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe, with an emphasize on the distrbutional approach.
No. 31, 1995 – Industrial Policy, Structure and Efficiency in the Hungarian Manufacturing Industry (Transitional Crisis and Restructuring)
The paper focuses on the main effects in the performance of the companies in connection with the industrial policy changes during transition. It gives a view about development in the corporate structure according to the ownership pattern, horizontal and vertical links of the companies, production organisation, productivity, changing market structure, source of profit and losses, cost-structure and rate return on invested capital.
No. 30, 1995 – Eastern Europe’s Trade Performance on Western Markets and Eastern Europe as a Market for Western exports: a Review of Developments between 1990 and 1993
In this study a statistical review of the “progressive” side of Eastern Europe’s trade reorientation is presented for the period 1990-1993, from a reverse perspective, i.e. based on statistics of the OECD countries.
No. 29, 1995 – Transition and/or Modernisation in Eastern Europe
The paper examines the economic background of the state socialist modernisatory attempts in Eastern Europe.
No. 28, 1995 – From “Great Leaps Forward” to Normalcy: Some Issues in Transitional Policies in Eastern Europe
Export-oriented development is absolutely crucial for the small open economies of Central and Eastern Europe. However, given the potentially (or in most cases actually) dangerous disequilibria (foreign debt, budget deficit, and inflation), the present scope for economic policy action is limited, and any radical step toward “introducing“ export-orientation or investment-promotion may run against those limits and prove counter-productive.
No. 27, 1994 – Trade among the CEFTA Contries in the mid-1990s: How to Promote the Expansion of Intra-Regional Trade Flows in Central Europe (Special issue)
The paper is a summary report of the Tradelinks project, which is a collaborative research effort of four Central and Estern European research centres and the International Center of Economic Growth. The Tradelinks project aimed at a deeper investigation into the issue of intra-regional cooperation in the field of commerce, finance, infrastructure et al in order to understand why the collapse of intra-regional trade flows had been so sharp and recovery so long-lasting, as well as to propose adequate policy measures and company initiatives for promoting the resurgence of mutual trade.
No. 26, 1994 – The development of the Hungarian Banking System
The paper gives an overview about the background of the banking system in Hungary and the development of the two-tier banking system. It also examines the changes in the financial intermediary sector, the bank regulations currently as well as the position of banks.
No. 24, 1994 – The Regional Role of the Former Soviet Union and the CMEA: a Net Assesment
This paper reviews some aspects of the break-up of the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) and its aftermath. It focuses on relations between the small Central and East European (or briefly, East European) countries on the one hand, and their dominating partner in the organisation, the Soviet Union (and its successor states), on the other.
No. 23, 1994 – The Main Features of the Present Hungarian Tax System
The purpose of this study is to describe of the present Hungarian system of taxation and to reveal how levies hinder mainly small enterprises from functioning and growing. Further, it wishes to outline some possible changes which might facilitate the situation of the entrepreneurial sphere.
No. 22, 1994 – Hungary and the IMF: The Experience of a Cordial Discord
The paper seeks to answer the following question: Why is it that, despite the fact that, all Hungarian governments since our accession to the IMF and IBRD in 1982 have been explicitly cooperative with regard to the wishes of these institutions, that their leverage on systemic change has remained as limited as with any other country on Earth?
No. 21, 1994 – Privatization: An Interpretative Endeavor
In this paper an attempt has been made to define the term privatisation in general. Therefore, this discussion is not directed towards the unique circumstances in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), unless clearly specified.
No. 20, 1993 – The Impact of Exchange Rate Policy on the Development of Industrial Competitiveness
The paper attempts to answer two questions: the first one is whether the exchange rate of Forint is maintainable, the other one, in close connection with the above, concerns how the change in exchange rate policy influence the competitiveness of the products of the Hungarian manufacturing industry.
No. 19, 1993 – Stages of State Involvement: Dilemmas and Turningpoints for Privatization in Hungary
The paper explains how the market methods of privatization are losing their importance as an effect of tensions accompanying the transformation process, while non-market procedures seem to be gaining new strength.